光污染影響動物遷徙

研究發現光污染會影響動物遷徙,包括鳥類、蝴蝶、飛蛾、蝙蝠等物種。 一些動物依靠星星來辨別方向,但光污染令牠們更難觀察星空; 亦有些動物會被市區的燈光影響而迷失方向或偏離遷徙路線,結果無法到達牠們的繁殖或覓食地點。 除了遷徙,光污染也會影響牠們的繁殖、覓食或休息行為。

New study found light pollution affects migrating animals including birds, butterflies, moths, bats and many more species. Some animals depend on stars to find directions, but light pollution makes it difficult for them to see the starry night sky; some will become disoriented by the lights from urban areas, went off route and might not make it to their breeding or feeding locations. beside migrations, light pollution also affects their breeding, feeding and resting behaviors.

https://phys.org/news/2023-02-reveals-pollution-migrating-animals.html

誤食瀕危鯊魚

研究發現,在澳洲銷售的炸魚薯條中的魚,有機會是瀕危的鯊魚物種。他們在研究中發現了四種瀕危的鯊魚,包括雙髻鯊及短鰭灰鯖鯊。一些鯊魚如南極星鯊,是可持續發展的海鮮,在澳洲常被稱為“flake”,但他們發現只有 11% 的零售商有正確的識別標籤,20% 的被錯誤標籤,而其他的亦含糊不清。

A recent research found fish in fish and chips sold in Australia could be endangered shark species. they discovered four species of endangered sharks including smooth hammerhead and short-fin mako in their research. some shark species like gummy sharks are sustainable seafood usually named as “flake” in Australia, but they found only 11% of retailers has correctly identified labels, 20% has been mislabeled, and others has ambiguous labels.

https://www.forbes.com/sites/melissacristinamarquez/2023/02/01/aussies-drop-that-fish-it-may-be-endangered-shark/?sh=4e0826ed26d4

與家禽雜交失遺傳多樣性

在亞洲,原雞是馴養家禽雞的野生祖先,牠們因為與棲息地附近所養殖的雞雜交而受到威脅,並失去其遺傳多樣性。研究人員估計,這些原雞大概已從養殖雞隻繼承了 20-50% 的基因組。基因改變會令牠們更容易感染疾病,並降低牠們適應不同環境變化的能力。

In Asia, red junglefowls, the wild ancestors of domesticated chickens, are under threat and losing their genetic diversity because they are interbreeding with chickens farmed near their natural habitat. Researchers estimated that these red junglefowls have inherited 20-50% of their genomes from domesticated chicken. This will make them become more susceptible to diseases and reduce their ability to adapt to changing environments.

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/asias-red-junglefowl-are-threatened-by-interbreeding-with-free-range-domestic-chickens-180981473/

父母撫育換聰明雀鳥

烏鴉、貓頭鷹等雀鳥有較大的腦袋,比其他鳥類更聰明及更善於解決問題。 最近的研究發現,這些物種產卵數量較少,雛鳥出生後需依賴父母提供食物及照顧,因為牠們的大腦發育需要大量能量。 若沒有父母投放大量時間及精力,這些雛鳥則無法成長。

Birds with higher brain-to-body ratio like crows and owls are more intelligent and have better problem-solving skills. Recent research found that these species were born helpless and in small clutches, they rely on their parent for food and care as they require a lot of energy for their brain growth. Therefore, without their parents investing their energy on these offsprings, they won’t be able to grow to maturity.

https://www.earth.com/news/bigger-bird-brains-grow-at-the-expense-of-the-parents/

巴西石器非人類製造?!

於巴西發現約5萬年前的古代石器,一直被認為是由人類製造,但原來是屬於卷尾猴的! 這些猴子常被觀察到使用石頭工具來敲開堅果或挖掘等工作。 研究人員將現今卷尾猴製造的工具與那些古老的石器進行比較,兩者俱有驚人的相似度。而且除了這些石器之外,那個遺址並沒有其他大多數人類遺址中常見的動物骨頭、陶器或烹飪場所等痕跡。

The 50000-year-old ancient stone tools found in Brazil once thought to be made by humans, but they were actually made by capuchin monkeys! These monkeys are known to use stone tools for cracking nuts and digging. Researchers compare the tools made by the monkeys today to those ancient stone tools, and they looks surprising similar. beside the stone tools, there were no other evidence like animal bones, pottery or cooking places that were common in most human sites.

https://interestingengineering.com/science/50000-year-old-stone-tools-were-made-by-monkeys-not-ancient-humans-discover-experts

 

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