巴西人沒意識到在食用鯊魚

巴西是鯊魚肉最大進口國及最大食用國之一,但大多數巴西人並沒意識到他們正在吃鯊魚。鯊魚肉比其他白魚便宜,在學校及醫院食堂都有供應。其中大部分是從哥斯達黎加、中國、烏拉圭及西班牙等國家進口的。研究發現,巴西出售的鯊魚及魔鬼魚中有 83% 是受威脅物種。

Brazil is the top importer and one of the top consumers of shark meats, but most Brazilians don’t realize they are eating sharks. Shark meat is cheaper than other white fish and are served at schools and hospital canteens. Most of them are imported from counties like Costa Rica, china, Uruguay and Spain. Research discovered 83% of the shark and ray sold in Brazil were threatened species.

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/article/2024/jul/07/brazil-fishing-shark-meat-trade-threat-species-marine-conservation

為蛙類設計桑拿房抗菌

幾十年來壺菌一直威脅著全世界的兩棲動物,導致 90 個物種滅絕及500 多個物種數量下降。澳洲的研究人員設計了一種“青蛙桑拿房”,可以讓蛙類”加熱”來幫助殺死壺菌。他們在野外建立了這些桑拿房,發現曾使用這些桑拿房的青蛙感染壺菌的數量下降,而且牠們對再次感染壺菌的抵抗力也更強。這些桑拿房設計使用現成的材料,鼓勵公眾在後院建造自己的桑拿房,為蛙類提供拯救自己的機會。

Chytrid fungus has been threatening amphibians worldwide for decades, putting 90 species extinct and over 500 of them declined. Researchers in Australia designed a “frog sauna” that can warm up the frog to help kill the fungus. They set up these saunas in the wild and found out frogs accessed to them had lower infections, and these frogs were more resistant to reinfection as well. The “sauna” design used readymade materials to encourage people to build their own in their backyard to help provide the opportunity for the frog to save themselves.

https://theconversation.com/our-frog-saunas-could-help-save-endangered-species-from-the-devastating-chytrid-fungus-231605

魚類以體罰督促合作

薩氏新亮麗鯛(Neolamprologus savoryi)是一種合作繁殖的魚類,通常有族群幫手來幫忙保護領地及照顧後代。研究發現,主導的繁殖魚會攻擊那些沒幫忙的幫手,而受到攻擊的幫手被攻擊後會增強領土防禦。這項研究顯示,非人類動物如魚類也會利用懲罰來讓族群的其他成員合作。

A species of cichlid fish (Neolamprologus savoryi) are cooperatively breeding fish, there are usually subordinates (helpers) to help with nest protection and taking care of offsprings. Study found dominant breeders will attack helpers that prevented from helping, and the attacked helpers would increase territorial defense afterward.

This study shows nonhuman animals like fish also use punishment to get others to cooperate.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0003347224000691?via%3Dihub

黑猩猩使用植物自我治療

一項研究觀察到生活在烏干達的兩個黑猩猩群落會使用植物作為藥物。這些黑猩猩會尋找特定的植物並使用不同部分,有時是樹皮、葉子,甚至是枯木。研究人員發現牠們使用的這些植物,都具有抗菌或抗發炎特性。

A study observed two chimpanzee communities living in Uganda using plants for medication. these chimpanzees will seek for different parts of certain plants, sometimes their bark, leaf or even dead wood. Researchers studied the plants these chimpanzees used for the self-medicate, and found they contained antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties.

https://www.natureworldnews.com/articles/62098/20240621/wild-chimpanzees-exhibit-self-medicating-behaviors-using-medicinal-plants-treat.htm

各出其招卻不及停止餵飼有效

原鴿是世界許多城市都面臨的一個問題。一些科學家正在嘗試對原鴿進行節育以減少其數量,但這可能不算有效,因為原鴿需要服用藥物數天才能停止生育。可惜人類餵飼是原鴿的主要食物來源,牠們的食物選擇有很多而不一定會連續食用科學家的藥物。研究發現,減少原鴿的食物資源是減少牠們數量更有效的方法,然而人類的行為很難管制。

Feral pigeons is a problem in many cities around the world. some scientists are trying to give birth control to the pigeons to reduce their population, but it might not be effective because the birds need to consume the drug for days in order to stop their fertility. However, pigeons have many available food and human feeding is one of their main food sources. Study found reducing pigeon food resources is the more effective way to reduce their numbers, but human behavior is difficult to manage.

https://www.audubon.org/magazine/cities-are-testing-birth-control-solve-pigeon-problems

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